Scientific Recovery

Blood Protein Polymorphism Research is a reliable technique for effectively understanding evolutionary relationships of dogs. To discover the origin of Japan's ethnicity, Professor Tanabe took about 4000 dogs from approximately 50 different dog breeds, 30 of them which were indigenous Asian dog breeds, and discovered the evolutionary relationship of dogs by analyzing their blood protein polymorphism. The blood protein polymorphism research begins with selecting proteins within the blood that can be used for distinguishing different breeds, or simply polymorphism proteins. Due to the advanced genetic understanding involved in the research procedures and discussion, this manuscript will be centered on the results. The 16 different proteins of dogs that were studied were Pa, Alb, Poa, Ptf, Tf, Es, Lap, Akp, Hb, Es-2, Es-3, Pac, To, Gmoa, Gmog, GPI.

Professor Tanabe used electrophoresis to discover the polymorphism of all 16 different proteins for each of his 4000 dog subjects. After Tanabe collected and combined these data, he represented his findings with 16 pages of pictures. Among the 16 studied proteins, Tanabe showed distribution map of 2 proteins in picture 1. Picture 2 shows the pedigree's geographical gradient phenomenon. The picture shows that there is a similar blood-relationship between Korean dogs and dogs living in southwestern Japan. The blood-relationship changes as one moves northward or southward from the southwestern region on the map.

Picture 3 is the final result of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the frequency of allelic character appearance based on the 16 pages of pictures containing the data of 16 studied proteins.

Picture 3, which includes research data from 400 Jindo dogs, Sapsarees, and Jeju dogs, reveals interesting information regarding the blood relationship between our indigenous dogs and clearly shows the relative blood relationship between Korean dogs, Japanese dogs, and Western dogs. The genetic distance analysis of Sapsarees, Jindo dogs, and Jeju dogs revealed that the blood relationship between the three Korean breeds are closer than of any other breeds around the world.

Although the outer appearance of Jindo dogs and Jeju dogs are remarkably similar to that of indigenous Japanese dogs, they are actually very different from each other in terms of their blood-relationship. This shows that biochemical research based on the frequency of blood protein polymorphism is much more reliable than judging by a dog's appearance when it comes to making standards on classifying dog breeds.

Korean dogs are classified into one independent group and are clearly distinguishable from representative Western dogs such as Shepherds, Yorkshire Terriers, and Poodles. In terms of geographical distance and blood-relationship distance, Japanese dogs are located somewhere in the middle, between Western dogs and Korean dogs. Shi-ba and Akida, which inhabit the mid-region of Japanese archipelago, and American hunting dogs are shown to be relatively close to Jeju dogs.

Moreover, Eskimo dogs, which are also distant from other breeds, were proven to be most closely related to Laika, a Russian breed, and to shepherd dogs of Caucasia. This research result, which shows the long-distance blood relationship between distinct Korean dogs and most nearby breeds, is a valuable historical data that indirectly proves the uniqueness of our Korean race.

1.1 Microsatellite Loci Analysis

Moreover, Eskimo dogs, which are also distant from other breeds, were proven to be most closely related to Laika, a Russian breed, and to shepherd dogs of Caucasia. This research result, which shows the long-distance blood relationship between distinct Korean dogs and most nearby breeds, is a valuable historical data that indirectly proves the uniqueness of our Korean race.

Moreover, Eskimo dogs, which are also distant from other breeds, were proven to be most closely related to Laika, a Russian breed, and to shepherd dogs of Caucasia. This research result, which shows the long-distance blood relationship between distinct Korean dogs and most nearby breeds, is a valuable historical data that indirectly proves the uniqueness of our Korean race.

Except for few cases, picture 4 generally shows the close-relationship between the different breeds by indicating where each breed inhabits. Jindo dogs and Sapsaree, which are native Korean dogs, form one group while Gi-ju, Akita, and Buk-hye-do-gyeon, which are native Japanese dogs, form another group. As shown in picture 4, indigenous dogs of Korea, Japan, and China each has its own pedigree and can be distinguished from one another. From this we can see that the Korean dog breeds have relatively similar directionality and numerical value (in the figure) that suggest a similar close-relationship between the breeds. The noteworthy content is that our native dog breeds are placed in the same group as the Sakhalin and Eskimo dogs, which are both northern dog breeds. On the other hand, the distribution of Japanese dog breeds was unevenly dispersed. This implies that the origin of Japanese dog breeds is a mixture of genes from southern and northern dog breeds. In summary, the three Korean dog breeds form one group with Sakhalin and Eskimo dog while Japanese dog breeds, except for Shiba dog, loosely form another group. Taiwan dog breeds maintain a very close relationship with not only the Shitzu, a Chinese dog breed, but also with the Shiba dog. In terms of pedigree, Shiba was the only breed among the Japanese dog breeds that was distant from other Japanese breeds but close to Chinese breed.

1.2. Diverse Research, One Conclusion

In conclusion, the dog's stop and the frequency of a black spot appearing on the its tongue, which effectively show dog's evolutionary relevant-relationship, show that native Korean dogs must have originated from northern dog breeds. These dogs are different from Japanese dogs, which have received a lot of influence from southern dog breeds.

As expected, the blood protein analysis showed that the northern dog breeds including Eskimo dogs and Sakhalin show the closest-relationship with our native Korean dog breeds.

Also, the result of DNA-level microsatellite loci analysis was not much different from that of the blood protein polymorphism analysis and further supported the northern-origin of native Korean dog breeds. Another interesting conclusion from recent research is that, despite the difference in appearance, Sapsarees and Jindo dogs are, in fact, native dog breeds that share a very close genetic background. When judging only by the appearance, Jindo dogs resemble Japanese dog breeds such as Kishu and Akita dogs while Sapsarees, despite the difference in size, resemble China's Shitzu breed. Nevertheless, biochemical characteristics and DNA-level genetic polymorphism, such as blood-protein polymorphism, are much more reliable for understanding dog's pedigree.

Picture2
(A) Geographical Distribution Map of Red Blood Cell Hemoglobin Polymorphism present in regional dogs inhabiting Far East Asia
(B) Geographical Distribution Map of Red Blood Cell Gmo Polymorphism

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Map Showing the Blood Relationship Between Dog Breeds

Picture3
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Map Showing the Blood Relationship Between Dog Breeds

  • 1. Hokkaido dog
  • 2. Akita dog
  • 3. Kai dog
  • 4. kishu dog
  • 5. Shikoku dog
  • 6. Shiba dog(san'in)
  • 7. Shiba dog(Shnhu)
  • 8. Shiba dog(Mino)
  • 9. Shiba dog(Shba Inu Hozonkai)
  • 10. Mikawa dogs
  • 11. Tanegasima dogs
  • 12. Yakushima dogs
  • 13. Amamioshima dogs
  • 14. Iriomotejima dogs
  • 15. Mie Hunting dogs(Shima)
  • 16. Mie Hunting dog(Nanto)
  • 17. Tsushima dogs
  • 18. Iki dogs
  • 19. Ryukyu dog(Yanbaru)
  • 20. Ryuku dog(Ishigaki)
  • 21. Jindo dog
  • 22. Sapsaree
  • 23. Chejudo dog
  • 24. Taiwan native dogs
  • 25. Bangladesh hative dogs
  • 26. Chin
  • 27. Pug
  • 28. Chow chow
  • 29. Pekingnes
  • 30. Pointer
  • 31. Maltese
  • 32. Boxer
  • 33. Geman Shepard
  • 34. Schottland Shceepdog
  • 35. Beagle
  • 36. Pomeranian
  • 37. Poodle
  • 38. Doberman
  • 39. Collie
  • 40. Dachshund
  • 41. Yorkshire Terrier
  • 42. Dalmatian
  • 43. Cochker Spanie
  • 44. English Setter
  • 45. Labrado Retriever
  • 46. Niho Spitz
  • 47. Middle-Asian Sheepdog
  • 48. Caucasian Sheepdog
  • 49. Laika
  • 50. Eskimo dog
  • 51. Siberian Husky(American)
  • 52. North Sakhalin native dogs
  • 53. Monogolian native dog(Mongol)
  • 54. Mongolian native dog(Taiga)

그림3 개 종류별 혈연적 연관성을 보여주는 주성분 분석도

Picture4
Close-relationship Map of 11 breeeds of Far East Asia based on Microsatellite Loci Analysis

  • 1. Saspsaree
  • 2. Jindo Dog
  • 3. Crossbred native Korean dog
  • 4. kishu dog
  • 5. Bukhyedogyeon
  • 6. Akita
  • 7. Shiba
  • 8. Sakhalin
  • 9. Eskimo dog
  • 10. Taiwan native dog
  • 11. Shizu(Kim,1998)
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